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Educational or Training Theories in the Future

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Raghida Zamzam | 01 Nov 2016, 09:53 AM Agree 1
Education or Training in the Future

In this article, the main focus will be about the advancement in the future of IDT models and educational technology for improving education in the future. The article consists of four main sections. First, the instructional design definition will be changed in the future. Second, ADDIE model will be replaced by more recent and effective models. Third, technology will be remarkably used for instructional purposes. Fourth, the instructional designers’ opportunities will be increased.

Instructional Design Definition Change

Currently, the main goal of the instructional design is to devise the methods and the means to deliver the instructional content through instructional technology and instructional media such as the cognitive and constructive theories or guide designing an effective learning environment that facilitates gaining new skills, such as Gagne's and situated theories. The future instructional design definition will be broadened to include the performance improvement, ethical practice, and learning facilitation elements as main factors of the instructional design success (Reigeluth, 2012).

Reigeluth (2012) noted that currently, schools and training programs teach a predetermined and fixed amount of content that needs to be covered in a certain amount of time. In addition, the current system tends to flunk students who are not achieving to orient them towards manual labor or to sort out the students (Reigeluth, 2012). However, the future education must address the learning needs and differences of the students until the students master the content because students learn at different rates (Reigeluth, 2012). The future education must address both the slow learners’ performance as well as the fast students who may get bored waiting for the group to move on. As a result, the training or the curriculum must be designed to accommodate the variations among students by implementing individualized education system (Reigeluth, 2012).
Learning will be individualized so that every student maximally benefits from the learning experience. Throughout history, learning was all about copying and memorizing. The students used to be passive listeners, and the teacher was the only one talking in the class using old methods of delivering the lessons’ concepts, such as chalkboard, and textbooks. Today, the Internet technology has invaded the education system and the classrooms (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012). The advancement of this technology has increased the efficiency of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC), e-learning, or any of the mobile technology used to host the learning platform. In the future, this trend of online training will continue to increase and proliferate significantly (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012).

ADDIE is Outdated

ADDIE comprises the father of instructional designs models; it is based on a systematic product development concept. ADDIE stands for analyzing, designing, developing, implementing, and evaluating. Reiser and Dempsey (2012), noted that ADDIE continues to be an effective instructional tool today although it is not specific or a fully elaborated model. However, according to Bates (2010), the instructional systems design model is ineffective and does not work. As a result, no one uses it although many of the contemporary instructional models stem their strategies from ADDIE (Bates, 2010). One of the drawbacks of using ADDIE as mentioned by Reiser and Dempsey (2012) is that it breaks up complex skills into separate smaller components without integrating them into a coherent unit. The future trend of instructional design should focus on the “whole task” or the Pebble-in-the-Pond models where the learner will be introduced to progressively harder tasks to complete and integrate them at the end of the course (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012). The effective instructional design model should include a combination of learning theories, behavioral, cognitive, situated, constructive, and Gagne’s theory. The behavioral theory’s main concern is to study the psychology of the learner. Meanwhile, the cognitive theory studies the brain’s capacity of absorbing new information. The situated theory focuses more on the learning environment, including classroom setting or online setting. The constructive theory is where the new information will be built upon the prior knowledge of the learner. The Gagne’s theory is to stimulate the learners and attract their attention (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012).

Using Technology for Instructional Purposes

As of 2009, 93% of the public schools’ classrooms in the United States have computers with Internet access (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012). Teachers denoted that they frequently have their students use technology to conduct research, solve problems, collect data, and develop multimedia projects. In addition, simulation and gaming technology are being employed in military training. Instructional media is not only used in schools and higher education but also in business and industry (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012). Technology advancements have made it easier to incorporate collaboration sessions and increased the students’ involvement in the learning experience. This trend will continue to advance more in the future with more technology adoption that aligns with the educational organizations’ objectives and the use of adaptive learning principles, which could be measured for effectiveness (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012).
The Role of Instructional Designers
The role of instructional designers (ID) will become more challenging since the advancement of technology is rapidly increasing. The fast pace of technology proliferation may constitute an obstacle to IDs as they need to incorporate more sophisticated technology into the curriculum and online courses. However, this will open many opportunities to IDs as they continue to devise effective means of delivering instruction online (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012).

Bates, T. (2010). The future of instructional design – or my heart belongs to ADDIE. Retrieved from http://www.tonybates.ca/2010/06/08/the-future-of-instructional-design-or-my-heart-belongs-to-addie/
Reigeluth, C. M. (2012). Instructional theory and technology for the new paradigm of education. Retrieved from http://www.um.es/ead/red/32/reigeluth.pdf
Reiser, R. A., & Dempsey, J. V. (2012). Trends and issues in instructional design and technology (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: PEARSON.
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